高更最著名的1柒张画,原来你是这么的高更!

本期原著选自The Economist
201六-玖-叁的Leaders板块Uberworld,释义来自早稻田高阶柒版、香港理工高阶学习词典英汉双解第二版、有道词典等网络能源。假如你也在攻读The
Economist,欢迎订阅作者的文集The
Economist
,一起上学调换。

高更 ·Paul Gauguin

Uberworld

The world’s most valuable startup is leading the race to transform the
future of transport “LET’S Uber.” Few companies offer something so
popular that their name becomes a verb. But that is one of the many
achievements of Uber, a company founded in 2009 which is now the
world’s most valuable startup, worth around $70 billion. Its app can
summon a car【1】in moments in more than 425 cities around the
world, to the fury of【2】taxi drivers everywhere. But Uber's
ambitions, and the expectations underpinning its valuation, extend
much further: using self-driving vehicles【3】, it wants to make
ride-hailing【4】so cheap and convenient that people forgo car
ownership altogether. Not satisfied with shaking up【5】the
$100-billion-a-year taxi business, it has its eye on【6】the far
bigger market for personal transport, worth as much as $10trillion a
year globally.

(1848年6月7日-1903年5月8日,双子座)

【1】summon a car叫车;summon a meeting召集会议;summon
assistance/help/reinforcements请求帮助/帮助/增援

法兰西共和国印象派歌唱家、摄影家、陶瓷书法大师及雕塑家,与塞尚、梵高合称后记念派三杰。高更的著述趋向于“原始”的作风。其用色和线条都相比较粗犷。高更的创作中反复充满现实征性的物与人。

【2】to the fury of sb令某人勃然大怒;类似的用法to sb'
surprise令某人吃惊,to sb's advantage对某人有利

当代艺术史中,高更频仍被拿来与梵高并论,他们曾经是很好的情侣,相互画过对方的写真,但最后却步上区别的道路,并未保障很好的情分。高更不喜欢都市文明,反而向往蛮荒的活着

【3】self-driving
vehicle自动驾车小车,无人驾车小车;self-driving要求与self-drive差别开,self-drive是驾车本人的车(去度假)的或许租车人活动驾乘的

,那么些都在她的小说中看得出来。今天来赏析高更最著名的一7张画,进一步询问高更的为人。

【四】ride-hailing叫车;ride动词含义是代步、乘坐;hail招手(请出租车或集体汽车停下)

【5】shake up重组,重大调整;名词shake-up

一.《失去童贞》

【6】have sb's eye on sth看中,想要得到

(纵90.贰×横130.贰毫米 诺福克Chrysler博物馆内藏品)

Uber is not alone in this ambition. Companies big and small have
recognised the transformative potential of electric, self-driving
cars, summoned on demand【7】. Technology firms including Apple,
Google and Tesla are investing heavily in autonomous
vehicles【8】
; from Ford to Volvo, incumbent【9】carmakers
are racing to catch up. An epic struggle looms【10】. It will
transform daily life as profoundly as cars did in the 20th century:
reinventing【11】transport and reshaping cities, while also
dramatically reducing road deaths and pollution.

简介:那是一幅颇具神秘含义的小说,乐师描绘了一人裸体少女的形象。画画大师以梦幻的手段,赋予画面以冷静的空气,少女无拘无缚地躺在旷野上,享受着广大寂寥的随机与心情舒畅。所谓《失去童贞》,意指美术师内心纯正的希望,在虚伪丑恶的城池喧嚣中早已被污辱了,可是那么些愿望正像岛上的本地人少女一样洁白无暇。画面上那只小狐狸,意味着环境的原始野性。文章色彩单纯,显示出平面感,原始人取代了村民形象,大自然成为人间福地,呈现了书法大师无忧无虑的情怀。

【柒】summoned on demand随叫随到;on
demand的本心是“1经需求”,在通讯世界能够译为“点播”,例如VOD(video-on-demand点播电视机),GOD(Game
On 德姆and点播游戏)

【8】autonomous vehicle自动开车汽车,与前方提到的self-driving
vehicle类似

2.《永不再》

【九】incumbent现任的,在职的;也得以作名词

简介:此画是《Smart在目送》的续作。画名取自埃伦坡的诗中意味着归西的“乌鸦”不吉利的喊叫声,而及时美术大师正身患重病。画中表现一个人马尔代夫族的女性,裸露着充裕的肌体横卧在华侈的床上,窗台处停了1只大乌鸦,正向室内偷看。画中人物的表情不再是害怕,但画面却充满长逝气息。画法采取平涂法,用笔粗放不受拘束,与原本的大旨相烘托,人物用的是尾部光,坚实了那幅画给人的神秘感。

【拾】loom隐现;loom large令人担忧,令人惊恐

【1一】reinvent sth/oneself (as sth) 以新形象出现; 另一个近似的短语come
across as,给人留下……印象(Yahoo上的1个例句:You wouldn't think a
prince would be like this. He doesn't come across as a prince.
(表明威廉王子拾1分和气) )

三.《神秘的伊甸园》

The wheels of change

In the short term Uber is in pole position【12】to lead the
revolution because of its dominance of
chauffeured【13】ride-hailing, a part of the transport market
that will see some of the fastest growth. Today ride-hailing accounts
for less than 4% of all kilometres driven globally, but that will rise
to more than 25% by 2030, according to Morgan Stanley, a bank. The
ability to summon a car using a smart phone does not just make it easy
for individuals to book a cheaper taxi. Ride-sharing
services【14】
like UberPool, which put travellers heading in the
same direction into one vehicle, blur the boundaries between private
andpublic transport. Helsinki and other cities have been experimenting
with on-demand bus services and apps that enable customers to plan and
book journeys combining trains and buses with walking and private
ride-sharing services. Getit right, and public-transport networks will
be extended to cover the “lastmile” that takes people right to their
doorsteps. This will extend the market for ride-hailing well beyond
the wealthy urbanites who are its main users today.

简介:《大家从何地来?大家是何人?大家到哪儿去?》描绘的便是高更不错中的伊甸园,在银色本白的秘闻大气氛围中,由生到死的进度依次举办。那是歌唱家以最大热情完毕的哲理性小说,创作那幅画的时候,
贫病交迫和世俗否定已经使高更的精神濒临崩溃的边缘,为此曾经数十次轻生。他曾跑到群山里吃下毒药,企图死后以协调的遗骸饲兽,以求彻底的解脱,但被人发觉救起。

【1二】pole position有利地点

从此未来,他又陡然发出强烈的著述欲。他说:“作者打算在自身死前画一幅宏伟的创作,作者前所未有狂热,日以继夜地劳作了1个月。”他觉得那幅画是1个人走投无路、人困马乏的人把它看成遗嘱画在麻袋布上的。于是她想把本身梦幻中的一切都显现到那幅画中,包涵能够纪念全数办法的古体诗形态、惯用的花哨色彩和赤裸的男女肢体等等。当她梦醒时,他觉得面对画幅"看到"了他所要画的万事构思:“我们从哪个地方来?我们是什么人?我们往什么地方去?”那句话就成了那幅画的标题。

【一三】chauffeured专车的;chauffeur源于土耳其(Turkey)语,本意是“司机”

【1四】Ride-sharing services拼车服务;Ride-sharing拼车

4.《献给梵高的自画像》

But in the longer term autonomous vehicles will drive the reinvention
of transport. The first examples have already hit the
road【15】
. Google is testing autonomous cars onstreets near its
headquarters in Mountain View. A startup called nuTonomyrecently
launched a self-driving taxi service in Singapore. Tesla’s
electriccars are packed full of driver-assistance technology. And
within the next few weeks Uber itself will offer riders in Pittsburgh
the chance to hail anautonomous car (though a human will be on hand to
take back the wheel if needed).

简介:那幅高更《献给梵高的自画像》中,你好似都能听到高更在冷笑:“哼,没有错,小编去妓院便是为了充足。”但便是那种创作的感到,让来到阿尔勒的梵高决定拒绝那种思疑的喜形于色,可能至少限制了温馨两周才去二回。

【15】hit the road上路

当他们调换肖像时,梵高把团结画成东正教的和尚壹般(献给高更的自画像),头发十分的短,背景是青瓷般的绿,令人沦落沉思。而高更把团结画得就像在挑衅,他的头就像是一刀一刀凿出来的,仿佛欧洲想必印加武士的半身像。后墙上有一幅埃米尔·博纳尔的画像,这是她们合伙的对象。肖像上边,高更写下了独具同志情谊的题词:“魔难世界(les
misérables)”。

Self-driving cars will reinforce trends unleashed by ride hailing,
making it cheaper and more accessible. The disabled, the old and the
young will find it easier to go where they want. Many more people will
opt out of【16】car ownership altogether. An OECD study that
modelled the use of self-driving cars in Lisbon found that shared
autonomous vehicles could reduce the number of cars needed by 80-90%.
As car ownership declines, the enormous amount of space devoted to
parking—as much as a quarterof the area of some American cities—will
be available for parks and housing instead.

【1陆】opt out of 退出,扬弃;opt in to选拔加入

伍.《深红的救世主》

It is not clear which companies will dominate this world or how
profitable it will be. Uber will not win in its current form: a
ride-hailing business which depends on human drivers cannot compete on
roads full of self-driving cars. But this existential threat is
spurring the firm’s innovation (see page 17). With its strong brand
and large customer base, Uber aims to establish itself as the leading
provider of transport services in a self driving world. It is also
branching out into【17】new areas, such as food
delivery【18】
and long-distance cargo haulage【19】using
autonomous trucks. There is logic in this ambition. Carmakers lack
Uber’s experience as a service provider, or its deep knowledge of
demand patterns and customer behaviour.

简介:《威新奥尔良红的救世主》一画,也是以《布道后的估摸(Smart与雅各的入手)》同样的主意画的:画面描写了多少个农妇跪在“受难处”,即钉死耶稣的十字架前;基督的雕像画得一定粗糙1这座神的塑像的席卷的形体处理颇能显示出民间创作的风味,但它聊起底太不难,草率得不禁与纯色的周旋统1。画师为了凸显风景的灾祸、贫瘠和秋色,把兴趣集中在1边,即集中在神仙塑像的黄调子及和鲜蓝背景及深藕红阴影的涉及上。因而,高更的象征主义仅仅是戏剧家直接表现和谐心中的一种手段。平时生活场景只是他用来创立装饰性节奏和景点核心的介绍人;而那种装饰性节奏和景色主旨就如一向都以伴随着宗教情绪的这种难熬的代表。

【17】branch out (into sth)涉足,拓展

【18】food delivery送餐

陆.《有啥新鲜事?》

【1玖】long-distance cargo haulage长途货物运输

简介:高更的那件小说描绘的是两位正在休息的巾帼,通过广大的平涂色块,以及极具装饰性的鲜明的情调相比来显示两位土著妇女的概貌。妇女铁红的皮层在强烈的红、黄、黑等色彩的衬托下显得原始意味10足,显现出令人敬仰的野性之美。黄铜色的果品更进一步加深土著民族的春意。

But firms that pioneer【20】new technological trends do not always
manage to stay on top. Think of Nokia and BlackBerry in smart phones,
Kodak in digital cameras or MySpace insocial networking. Much will
depend on which firm best handles the regulators.Technology companies
have a history of trying new things first and asking forpermission
later. Uber’s success in ride-hailing owes much to this recipe, yet when
it comes to autonomous vehicles, the combination of vague rules and
imperfect technology can have deadly consequences.

【20】pioneer开创

七.《你如何时候结婚啊?》

Even for the winners, it is not clear how great the rewards will be.
As more firms pile into ride-sharing, and autonomous vehicles become
part of the mix, the business may prove to be less lucrative than
expected. By matching riders with drivers, Uber can offer transport
services without owning a single vehicle, and keep the lion’s share of
the profits. But if its service becomes an integral part of urban
transport infrastructure, as it hopes, Uber could end up being
regulated, more highly taxed, broken up or all of the above. In a
self-driving world, Uber might also have to own and operate its own
fleet【21】, undermining its “asset-light” model. The
would-be【22】high-margin digital disrupter would then look more
like a low-margin airline.

简介:南北冰洋岛的大溪地岛是高更的点子源泉,不论是那里的山,水,民族风气照旧人物都以他画笔下的优秀题材。而那里的半边天更是高更关键描写对象,在他的笔下展现了特种的魔力。那件文章中的妇女肩宽体阔,肉体圆浑,肤色乌黑,其动作自不过随便,甚至突显出壹些憨态,就像是从画里怯生生地望着你,瞧着三个来路不明的文明人,用他们那审慎而不乏友善的目光,安静的态势和您保持着必然距离,不仅丝毫从没有过一点假模假式,而且别有1番发乎自然的高雅之态。

【21】fleet车队

【2二】would-be想要成为……的,准;would-be college student准大学生

8.《玛丽亚》

The great road race

For now Uber is the firm to beat in the race to transform the future
of personal transport. Unlike Apple or Google, it is singularly
focused on transport; unlike incumbent carmakers, it does not have a
legacy【23】car-manufacturing business to protect. Its recent
rapprochement【24】with Didi, its main rival in China, has
removed a major distraction, allowing it to devote its $9 billion
war chest【25】to developing new technology. Its vision of the
future is plausible and compelling. It could yet prove a
Moses【26】company, never reaching its promised land—it might
end up like Hoover【27】, lending its name to a new product
category without actually dominating it. But whether Uber itself wins
or loses, we are all on the road to Uberworld.

简介:南北冰洋岛的大溪地岛是高更的方法源泉,不论是那里的山,水,民族风气仍然人物都以她画笔下的精美题材。而那里的女人更是高更要紧描写对象,在她的笔下展现了差异平时的吸引力。那件小说中的妇女肩宽体阔,身体圆浑,肤色漆黑,其动作自但是随便,甚至突显出某个憨态,就像从画里怯生生地望着你,看着3个素不相识的文明人,用他们那审慎而不乏友善的秋波,安静的神态和你保持着一定距离,不仅丝毫从未一点故作姿态,而且别有壹番发乎自然的幽雅之态。

【二3】legacy遗产,遗留(难题);通信世界的legacy code遗留代码

【24】rapprochement和平解决,友好关系的还原;本文中是指滴滴骑行、优步中中原人民共和国集合,在此以前The
Economist 201陆-八-陆的Leaders板块China's Tech
Trailblazers中曾提到优步当时控制将协调的中原工作卖给个中夏族民共和国挑战者滴滴骑行。

9.《大溪地少女》

【二5】war chest专款,专用资金

简介:《塔希提少女》描绘的是其1岛上劳动妇女人活的1个气象。画面中央八个坐在海边沙滩上的塔希提女士形象,给人以1种平衡、庄敬感。为了杰出那种特定的风土,高更选取的是近于古阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)油画的平涂手法,故意流露单线平涂的笨拙结构方式。画上的四人物极富东方色彩的趣味。大面积平涂色块的点缀画法,使土著人民在引人侧目标日光下晒成的棕赭色皮肤,与鲜艳的裙子构成了鲜明的色彩相比。高更把那里的热带原始园林简化,然则强化了空气。那幅画上的异国情调,浓郁的自然风光,未有透视感,未有情调的层次,充满着主观的点缀味道。

【2陆】MosesMoses,公元前一叁世纪犹太人的部族带头人,是犹太教、伊斯兰教、东正教和巴哈伊信仰等宗教里极为主要的贤良。出阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)记(Exodus)中记载,Moses受上帝之命,教导被奴役的希伯来人逃离古埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt),前往雄厚之地——迦南地。经历40多年的孤苦跋涉之后,在即将抵达指标地时他过世了。从此希伯来人摆脱了被奴役的苦难生活(此释义参考360百科)。

【2柒】HooverHoover;190七年,Hoover品牌创始人Spangler发明了世界上第2台自动清洁机,那正是当代吸尘器的原型。一玖零八年,Hoover收购了Spangler的筹划,并初步大量生产此款吸尘机(此释义参考360百科)。

10.《Brittany猪倌》

【知识点集中】

简介:188八年《Brittany猪倌》那幅画里用的是勾黑边的情调平涂。这个平涂面是相互相对的,为的是不信赖中间调子而表现出空间感。有个别色彩画得很随便,不能够反呈现实:林子是藏卡其灰、橙黄和墨深红,山是深灰蓝色,石头是粉金色,房子是深紫和褐色,猪是风骚,放猪的孩子穿的是天青和黄褐的衣着。

  1. 关于叫车服务的词汇:叫车 summon or hail a
    car/vehicle/ride;叫车服务ride-hailing
    service;拼车ride-sharing;随叫随到 summoned on
    demand;专车的chauffeured;自动驾乘车/无人驾乘车 self-driving
    vehicle/autonomous vehicle,(不一致)自驾游self-drive tour/road
    tour;上路 hit the rode;车队fleet

  2. 交运类词汇:送餐food delivery;长途货物运输 long-distance cargo
    haulage

  3.  To 的用法:令某人怒发冲冠 to the fury of sb; 令某人吃惊to sb'
    surprise,对某人有利to sb's advantage

  4. 有时光意义的词:现任的,在位的 incumbent,in office,想要成为的,准
    would-be;遗留、遗产 legacy

5.专用意义的词语:专款,专用资金 war chest;专车的chauffeured

1一.《布道后的奇想》

  1. 五个土耳其共和国语词源的词汇:rapprochement 和平消除、关系复苏; chauffeur 司机

  2. 经济学故事:MosesMoses,源于《圣经》第二卷《出阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)记》

  3. 反而意义的成对词语:选用参与和抉择退出 opt in to,opt out of

  4. 代表现身的用语:隐现,隐隐可知loom,让人担忧,令人惊恐 loom
    large;以新样式出现,以新形象示人 reinvent sth/oneself (as sth);
    给人留下……影像come across as

  5. 表示有利地位的用语:(汽车、自行车比赛的)先发地方、最便利地方 pole
    position

简介:那幅看起来象是宗教难题的文章,实际上是以象征主义为特点,描绘Brittany半岛上农妇在教区牧师讲解教义时,日前所发出的幻象。画的是大千世界脑千米的幻觉,画上以现实主义手法表现,因而画的人员不是基督徒形象。Brittany农妇头上戴着的新奇帽子,压实了镜头的装饰成效,而宗教遗闻中“搏斗”场合,却被拍卖在不太显眼的地点,以代表这几个热切的Brittany农妇头脑里所反映的幻象。

注:本文仅供就学调换之用,不意味着笔者观点。

1贰.《赏心悦目的精灵》

简介:此画又名《美貌的恩琪拉》,画中,大家来看了另一种色彩。那是一个美妇的写真。乐师在这些肖像上完全是根据色彩结构的供给适本地修酌着他的形——脸、手、衣裳。玫瑰色、石榴红和淡湖蓝借助形象自己和背景上的蓝绿和灰黄搭配出来;菩萨偶像上的孔雀藤黄和橙茶褐使那么些色彩显得尤为多元。由此,那里的形是言听计从面包车型地铁,那就能够使观者更加好地观赏那多少个纯色的区域。可是,美术师纵然颇感兴趣于那些肖像本身,他却并不只限于画3个1般的肖像;为了赋予肖像以一种超自然现象的情调,他把肖像安放在二个华而不实的圆形里;他在画的左手,安上一尊模糊不清的佛像,暗示肖像自己所给人的印象也与这些偶像壹样,同时也显得了画画大师对东方神秘主义的爱戴。那全体都未曾其它理性的价值,但是,甚至是在众多年过后的明天,音乐大师的那壹幻想照旧以其色彩的力量,以及1旦得以如此说的话,以其对地下东西的逼真的形态表现而使观众吸引。马拉丁美洲说高更的那句话颇可用以那幅画:“让人咋舌的是,这么多的微妙竞能包容在那样肯定的款型之中。”

壹叁.《Smart在注视》

简介:被单的风骚在此间把玛瑙红的背景和橙浅绿的身子以及水晶色的床罩连接起来。在我们日前时有产生的,是壹种始料比不上的、充满着光荣的和谐,它使人感到就像就是那种被盈利部落的人们看作是游魂磷光在烁烁。遗憾的是,由于高更遵循了象征主义的规则,在画中引人了幽灵的影象。这些形象在此地12分不和谐。它只可以减弱色彩表现力所造成的功力。“那幅画的诞生史是给那个总要弄清一切为何和因为啥的人而写下的。其实,那可是是一幅海边裸女习作。”那幅画上的裸体本人是很现实的,由此画中国和越南社会主义共和国少自然主义、越少离奇,她也才越比这些象征性、装饰性因素更加强烈卓越,高更在为了她的象征主义而献身了确实的核心之后,终于生出了1种批判的意识,明白到归根结蒂对她个人(而不是对别人)来说,最要紧的刚好是1幅笼罩在迷信恐惧的光环里的裸体习作。

14.《奥兰纳·玛丽亚》

简介:《大家朝拜玛丽亚》就是她在作文《大家从哪儿来?大家是哪个人?大家往何地去?》一画前的构思性文章。这几个在郊外采摘水果的大溪地妇女,常在这边进行神秘的祈神活动。那幅画的构图实际上是一种宗教意境与现实的回顾。左侧的承受孩子的亲娘,穿着很花哨的玉米黄塔帕裙,类似1幅实地写生的肖像画,左边中景多少个在祈神的半裸女生,是来源于爪哇寺院的线形浮雕。在太阳的炫耀下突显出壹种原始的神性。背景的情调是那么斑驳绚丽,1切都尚未透视感,色彩、形体都以平面包车型客车和拥有装饰性的。它不设有太深奥的意义,也不值得观赏者去费神推敲。说它神秘,就在于收入画中的形象是一种归纳的暗示。

1伍.《手里拿着马蒙的女郎》

简介:水墨画《手里拿着杧果的女生》是高更广大本地人生活创作中的1幅。在那近日期高更以很大的热忱真诚地描绘了本地人民族及其生活。水墨画《手里拿着抹猛果的妇女》小说用线条和总而言之的色块组成,具有深刻的不合理色彩和装饰功效。高更的法子对当代绘画影响巨大,高更被称呼"象征派的开创者"。

1六.《海浪里的女人》

简介:那件文章是高更1件特别具有代表性的文章,是他在Brittany南海岸的阿旺桥村创作的,被认为是她的阿旺桥时代1幅具有创建意义的创作。小说用野蛮的线条、简约的情势来形容壹个人正扑向海浪的裸体女生。高更认为,艺术无法只是照搬自然,而要通过扭曲、夸大和深化以阐释其内在意义,那件文章就是她那种作风的代表之作。通过描写扑向海浪的半边天,阐释其原始主义风格。同时又与象征主义紧凑集合,扑向深海的家庭妇女,象征心灵趋进自然。

1⑦.《女生与花》

简介:此画又名《大溪地的年青姑娘》,18九一年,高再创作的画像画“大溪地的年轻姑娘”是一幅真正的佳作。他喜爱大溪地妇女的那种粗野但却健康而显著的美,他喜爱他们的天真、直率的天性,他鉴赏她们肌肤上的炙热而又加上的颜色。他太为她的模特所陶醉了,以致他1筹莫展为了他的综合法而殉职模特儿。因而,他以综合的招数描绘对象,但决不搞综合。形象上未有丝毫虚无因素,每一根线条,每叁个调头都充斥着赞赏和欣喜。高更那种绝望的、难熬的调头,在那幅画季春通通未有。他在离家文明、远离首府巴比埃城的树丛里面,重新获得了平静、人性和春风得意。随着欢喜,他重又找到了纯正的明暗比较调子和落到实处的、而不是像过去那样狂乱的情调和谐。褐驼色的皮层、蓝紫罗兰色的毛发、青白色的衣衫(稍被几块玫瑰色和反动所间隔),展现在上半部为橙玉石白,下半部为革命,散布着有些绿树叶的了解的背景后边。甚至某个结构上、比例上、体量和光的呈现上的败笔,也竟成了1种难得的东西,因为它们反映了表现手法的非凡规和活泼,反映了美术师创作的自得。高更现在也撰文了有的像这样美的作品,但比那更加好的著述却自此不能够再见。

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